Types of Electronic Components
Electronic components work hard to power our world. They are usually grouped into two types – Active and Passive.
A semiconductor device designed to vary resistance based on light intensity.
A two terminal electrical component that allows AC to flow through it while resisting DC and stabilizing almost any circuit. They come in a wide variety of styles and sizes.
Transistors are the basic building block of both digital and analog circuits and are found in most electronics. They can be used to perform a variety of functions such as amplification, switching, signal modulation and voltage regulation.
They are most often used as electronic switches, with one layer of semiconductor material sandwiching the other, and they can be configured for either digital or analog applications. They are also found embedded in microprocessors and other monolithic integrated circuit chips, where millions of transistors are baked onto a single silicon microchip.
Switches act as multiport bridges for networked devices that operate at OSI model data connection layer 2. When digital potentiometer a device sends a packet, the switch reads its MAC address and consults a MAC address table to identify where the package should go.
These switches are plug-and-play and can be used without needing special configuration. They rely on auto-negotiation between Ethernet devices and support full-duplex mode to reduce transmission delays and congestion.
These switches combine data and power in the same cable, which cuts down on cabling costs and reduces overall energy use. They’re ideal for industrial settings with a need for reliable connections.
Transducers convert physical input into stable electrical signals. Examples of transducers include strain gauges, photo electric and pressure sensors. They can also help detect motion, temperature and humidity.
The output signal from a transducer is either analog or digital. Analog output signals change continuously, while digital outputs are in a fixed sequence.
A transducer must have a high dynamic range and low hysteresis for good performance. It should also have a small input impedance for rejecting unwanted signals. It should be rugged and durable too. This way, it can operate under harsh conditions.
Capacitors are passive electronic components that store energy by accumulating electric charges on two closely spaced and insulated surfaces. This enables them to deliver energy much faster than chemical batteries.
Caps are used for a variety of reasons in circuits, including power conditioning, electronic noise filtering and signal coupling/decoupling. They also help suppress voltage ripples from power supplies, protecting delicate IC chips and devices from high surges.
They are often found in motor start circuits, too. This helps improve the starting performance of electric motors. They can also be used to help filter signals by blocking out low frequencies and allowing higher ones through.
An inductor is a coil of wire with the ability to store energy by creating a magnetic field. They are used to regulate the flow of alternating current (AC) and direct current (DC) in circuits.
They are often paired with capacitors to prevent DC voltage drops in power supplies and other devices, maintain transient performance and increase converter efficiency. They also help reduce noise and ripple voltage levels in electronic devices.
Inductors come in a variety of shapes and sizes such as axial, cylindrical and bar forms. Some are molded for easy placement on PCBs and mobile devices.
LEDs (light-emitting diodes) come in a wide variety of colors and wavelengths. Each type has different power requirements and electrical characteristics.
Illumination and indication are the main uses for LEDs. They’re used for things like headlights and brake lights.
When an electric current flows through the LED, atoms in the n and p regions get close together and form the pulsed laser diode driver PN junction. Free electrons in the n region donate their extra energy to holes in the p region, which releases photons. The energy of these photons determines the color of the light emitted.
A transmitter is equipment that sends data over a communication channel. It includes many different devices, including cell phones, walkie-talkies, wireless computer networks and garage door openers.
Transmitters sense classic physical quantities and configure them into non-standard signals, such as 4-20 mA current or 1- to 5-V dc voltage signals. They also amplify and filter the sensor signal. Smart transmitters are designed with microprocessors and provide bi-directional communication. They also perform signal conditioning and analog to digital conversion. They also offer diagnostic capabilities. They can connect with field instruments using a variety of protocols, such as HART or FOUNDATION FIELDBUS.
Relays allow low power devices to control high current circuits and provide galvanic isolation. They have a fixed iron core and movable spring loaded portion called an armature. When the relay coil is energized it generates a magnetic field that closes the contacts on the armature. When the coil current is switched off the armature and switch contacts are returned to their original at rest position by the spring.
Relays are easy to operate, can multiply circuits, have accessory options, provide galvanic isolation and offer excellent resistance to voltage transients. They are also durable with a long lifespan.
Modules are components that can be added to or removed from a larger system. They are usually not functional on their own. In software programming, modules are used to divide up programs into smaller modular sections that can be easily modified.
Modular design makes it easier to assemble electronics and saves money by minimizing production costs. It also reduces time to market. However, it is important to consider all aspects of a product’s complexity when deciding to use modular design. A poorly designed product can cause many problems.
Sensors detect a physical phenomenon and convert it into a measurable analog voltage or digital signal. They are used to monitor and control various processes in the energy sector like oil, gas, electrical power and nuclear.
They are classified according to their sensitivity, linearity and drift. Sensitivity is the slope of a sensor’s value curve when plotted against an input. Linearity is the degree to which a sensor’s value curve resembles a straight line.
Sensors are crucial for IoT systems because they provide real-time data which helps businesses stay in touch with their operations. Examples include a fingerprint sensor in your smartphone, the toll plaza in your car and magnetic sensors in your refrigerator door.